Royal and Noble Ranks, Styles and Addresses

Royal and Noble Ranks

Traditional ranks among European royalty, peers, and nobility are rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Although they vary over time and between geographic regions (for example, one region’s prince might be equal to another’s grand duke), the following is a fairly comprehensive list that provides information on both general ranks and specific differences.


generally used titles:
Emperor, rules[1] an empire
King, rules[1] a kingdom (sovereign kings are ranked above vassal kings)
Duke, the ruler of a duchy, such as the statelets of the German and Holy Roman Empires
Prince, Fürst in German, ruling[1] a principality
Sultan, a Turkish title, rules[1] a sultanate
Emir, an Arabic title, rules an emirate
specific to one or a few realms:
Pope ( also “Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church and Vicar of Christ”); the Pope is also the absolute ruler of the sovereign state The Vatican City
Tsar (or Czar) in Serbian, Bulgarian, Russian, and Croatian, derives from Caesar, i.e. Emperor; although in its origins the title was meant to claim the imperial dignity, in its Russian and Bulgarian usages, at least, it has in more recent times been seen as only equivalent to King
Maharajah, in India, Nepal, (et cetera) “Maha” a prefix meaning highest, and “Rajah” meaning king, hence “highest king”, Emperor.
Shahanshah, Shah of Shahs, hence Emperor.
Khakhan, Khan of Khans, hence Emperor.
Caliph, ruling a caliphate is an Islamic title indicating the successor toMuhammad, who is both a religious and a secular leader
Rajah, In India, Nepal,(et cetera), title used for denoting the ruler of a kingdom.
Shah, in Iran (Persia), king, though often actually referring to the Shahanshah (Emperor).
Khan (Mongol, or Turkic) rules a khanate (mainly Asian, but also existed in Mongol/Turkic territory in Russia, Ukraine, and the Crimea)
Archduke, before 1806 the title of the ruler of the archduchy of Austria
Grand Duke, ruling[1] a grand duchy
Grand Prince, a title primarily used in the medieval Russian principalities as the title for the highest level

Noble[2] and cadet:

Archduke, ruling an archduchy; was generally only a sovereign rank when used by the rulers of Austria; was also used by the Habsburgs of the Holy Roman Empire for members of the imperial family
Duke, rules[1] a duchy[3], also for junior members of ducal and some grand ducal families
Prince, Prinz in German; junior members of a royal, ducal or princely family (the title of Fürst for heads of princely families and sometimes all members, e.g. Wrede)
Infante, title of the cadet members of the royal families of Portugal and Spain
Elector, Kurfürst in German, a rank for those who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, usually sovereign of a state (e.g. the Margrave of Brandenburg, an elector, called the Elector of Brandenburg)
Marquess, Margrave, or Marquis was the ruler¹ of a marquessate, margraviate, or march
Landgrave, a German title, ruler of a landgraviate
Count, theoretically the ruler of a county; known as an Earl in modern Britain
Viscount (vice-count), theoretically the ruler of a viscounty or viscountcy
Freiherr, holder of an allodial barony – these are “higher” level of barons[citation needed]
Baron, theoretically the ruler of a barony – some barons in some countries may have been “free barons” (liber baro) and as such, regarded (themselves) as higher barons

Regarding the titles of duke and prince: in Germany, a sovereign duke outranked a sovereign prince, but a royal cadet prince outranked a cadet duke of a ducal or grand ducal family. In the German nobility as well, being created a duke was a higher honour than being created a prince. The issue of a duke were sometimes styled as dukes or as princes; princely issue were styled as princes.


Baronet is generally an inheritable knighthood; often or usually not noble but ranking below Baron and above Knight
Vidame, a minor French aristocrat
Fidalgo, a minor Portuguese aristocrat (from filho d’algo = filho d’alguém = son of someone [important])
Seigneur or Knight of the Manor rules a smaller local fief
Knight is the basic rank of the aristocratic system
Jonkheer a title for prestigious Dutch families that never received a title, instead a new title was invented. Though these titles have no claim to a territory, city, or province in the Netherlands, they are basically claiming a good family name. A woman who holds this title is called a Jonkvrouw, though the wife of a Jonkheer is a Mevrouw or sometimes Freule, which could also be used by daughters of the same.
Esquire is a rank of gentry originally derived from Squire and indicating the status of an attendant to a knight or an apprentice knight; it ranked below Knight but above Gentleman[4]

In Germany, the actual rank of the holder of a title is, however, dependent on not only the title as such, but on for instance the degree of sovereignty and on the rank of the lord of the title-holder. But also such matters as the age of the princely dynasty play a role (Uradel, Briefadel, altfürstliche, neufürstliche, see: German nobility). Thus, any sovereign ruler would be higher than any formerly sovereign, i.e. mediatized, family of any rank (thus, the Fürst of Waldeck, sovereign until 1918, was higher than the Duke of Arenberg, mediatized). Members of a formerly sovereign house ranked higher than the regular nobility. Among the regular nobility, those whose titles derived from the Holy Roman Empire ranked higher than those whose titles were granted by one of the German princes after 1806, no matter what title was held.

In Austria, nobility titles may no longer be used since 1918.[5]

In Germany, the constitution of the Weimar Republic in 1919 abolished nobility and all nobility titles. They are now merely part of the family name, and there is no more right to the traditional forms of address (e.g., “Hoheit” or “Durchlaucht”). The last title was conferred on 12 November 1918 to Kurt von Klefeld.

In Switzerland, nobility titles are prohibited and are not recognized as part of the family name.

General chart of “translations” between languages

Below is a comparative table of corresponding royal and noble titles in various European countries. Quite often, a Latin 3rd declension noun formed a distinctive feminine title by adding -issa to its base, but usually the 3rd declension noun was used for both male and female nobles, except for Imperator and Rex. 3rd declension nouns are italicized in this chart. (Scroll to the right to see the rest of the chart)

See Royal and noble styles below to learn how to address holders of these titles properly.

Emperor,EmpressEmpereur,ImperatriceImperatore,ImperatriceEmperador,EmperatrizKaiser,KaiserinKeizer,KeizerinKeiser,KeiserinneKejsare,KejsarinnaCísar,CísarovnaCisár,CisárovnáKeisari,Keisarinna (or Keisaritar, obsolete)Cesarz,CesarzowaImperator/Tsar,Imperatritsa/TsaritsaKejser,KejserindeAftokrator,AftokratiraImperador,ImperatrizCesar,CesaricaImperator/Caesar,Imperatrix/Caesarina
Grand Duke/Grand Prince,Grand Duchess/Grand PrincessGrand Duc,Grande DuchesseGranduca,GranduchessaGran Duque,Gran DuquesaGroßherzog/Großfürst,Großherzogin/GroßfürstinGroothertog,GroothertoginStorhertug,StorhertuginneStorfurste,StorfurstinnaVelkovévoda,VelkovévodkyneVelkovojvoda,VelkovojvodkynaSuuriruhtinas,SuuriruhtinatarWielki Ksiaze,Wielka KsieznaVelikiy Knyaz,Velikaya KniaginaStorhertug,StorhertugindeMegas Doux, Megali DoukissaGrão-Duque,Grã-DuquesaVeliki vojvoda,Velika vojvodinjaMagnus Dux/ Magnus Princeps,magna ducissa, magna principissa
Archduke,ArchduchessArchiduc, ArchiduchesseArciduca,ArciduchessaArchiduque,ArchiduquesaErzherzog,ErzherzoginAartshertog,AartshertoginErkehertug,ErkehertuginneÄrkehertig,ÄrkehertiginnaArcivévoda,ArcivévodkyneArcivojvoda,ArcivojvodkynaArkkiherttua,ArkkiherttuatarArcyksiazeArcyksieznaErtsgertsog,ErtsgertsoginyaÆrke Hertug,Ærke HertugindeArchidoux, ArchidoukissaArquiduque,Arquiduquesa;Nadvojvoda,NadvojvodinjaArchidux,archiducissa
(Prince)-Elector,ElectressPrince-électeur,Princesse-électricePrincipe Elettore,Principessa ElettricePríncipe Elector,Princesa Electora;Kurfürst,KurfürstinKeurvorst,KeurvorstinKurfyrste,KurfyrstinneKurfursteKurfurstinnaKurfirtVaaliruhtinas,VaaliruhtinatarKsiaze Elektor,Ksiezna ElektorowaKurfyurst,KurfyurstinaKurfyrste,KurfystindePringkips-EklektorPringkipissa-EklektorissaPríncipe-Eleitor,Princesa-Eleitora;Volilni knez,Volilna kneginjaPrinceps Elector
Duke,DuchessDuc,DuchesseDuca,DuchessaDuque,DuquesaHerzog,HerzoginHertog,HertoginHertug,HertuginneHertig,hertiginnaVévoda,VévodkyneVojovda,VojvodkynaHerttua,HerttuatarDiuk (Ksiaze),(Ksiezna)HertugHertugindeDoukas/ArchonDoux/ArchontissaDuque,DuquesaVojvoda,VojvodinjaDux,ducissa
Earl / Count,CountessComte,ComtesseConte,ContessaConde,CondesaGraf,GräfinGraaf,GravinJarl /Greve,GrevinneGreve,GrevinnaHrabe,HrabenkaGróf,GrófkaKreivi/(brit:)jaarli,Kreivitär[12]Hrabia,HrabinaGraf,Grafinya[13]GreveGrevinde, KomtesseKomis,KomissaConde,Condessa[16]Grof,GroficaComes,comitissa
Viscount,ViscountessVicomte,VicomtesseVisconte,ViscontessaVizconde,VizcondesaVizegraf,VizegräfinBurggraaf,BurggravinVikomte,VisegrevinneVicegreve,vicegrevinnaVikomtVikomt,VikontesaVarakreivi,VarakreivitärWicehrabia,WicehrabinaVikont,VikontessaVicegreve,Vicegrevinde/VicekomtesseYpokomis, YpokomissaVisconde,ViscondessaVikont,VikontinjaVicecomes,vicecomitissa
Baron,BaronessBaron,BaronneBarone,BaronessaBarón,BaronesaFreiherr/Baron,Freifrau/Freiherrin/BaroninBaron,Barones(se)Baron,BaronesseFriherre,FriherrinnaBaron,BaronkaBarón,BarónkaVapaaherra/Paroni,Vapaaherratar/Paronitar[12]Wolny Pan,Wolna PaniBaron,BaronessaBaron,BaronesseVaronos,VaroniBarão,BaronesaBaron,BaronicaLiber baro,baronissa
Baron,BaronessBaron,BaronneBarone,BaronessaBarón,BaronesaBaron, Herr,Baronin, FrauBaron,Barones(se)Baron,BaronesseBaron, Herre,Baronessa, FruBaron,BaronkaBarón,BarónkaParoni, Herra,Paronitar, Rouva/ Herratar[12]Baron,BaronowaBaron,BaronessaBaron,BaronesseVaronos,VaroniBarão,BaronesaBaron,BaronicaBaro,baronissa
Baronet[17]BaronetessBaronnetBaronettoEdler,EdleErfridderBaronetBaronetti, “Herra” (=fiefholder),HerratarBaronetBaronetBaronet,BaronetesseBaronetos, BaronetaBaronete,Baronetesa;Baronet,Baronetinja
Knight[18]ChevalierCavaliereCaballeroRitterRidderRidderRiddare/ Frälseman,Fru[12]RytírRytierAatelinen/Ritari[12]style of wife: RouvaRycerz/ KawalerRytsarRidderHippotisCavaleiroVitezEques


  1. Loss of sovereignty or fief does not necessarily lead to loss of title. The position in the ranking table is however accordingly adjusted. The occurrence of fiefs has changed from time to time, and from country to country. For instance, dukes in England rarely had a duchy to rule.
  2. Although these ranks were most often only noble ones, most of these ranks were sometimes sovereign. This was especially the case for member states of the Holy Roman Empire.
  3. Dukes who are not actually or formerly sovereign, such as all British, French, and Spanish dukes, or who are not sons of sovereigns, as titulary dukes in many other countries, should be considered nobles ranking above marquess.
  4. The meaning of the title Esquire became (and is now) quite diffuse and may indicate anything from no aristocratic status, to some official government civil appointment, or (more historically) the son of a knight or noble who had no other title above just Gentleman.
  5. Austrian law on noble titles.
  6. Finland granted nobility ranks of Ruhtinas, Kreivi, Vapaaherra and Aatelinen. The titles Suurherttua, Arkkiherttua, Vaaliruhtinas, Prinssi, Markiisi, Jaarli, Varakreivi, Paroni and Baronetti were not granted in Finland, though they are used of foreign titleholders. Keisari, Kuningas, Suuriruhtinas, Prinssi and Herttua have been official titles of members of the dynasties that ruled Finland, used officially as such though not granted as titles of nobility. Up to 19th century, there existed feudally-based privileges in landowning, being connected to nobility-related lordship, and fiefs were common in late medieval and early modern eras. The title Ritari was not commonly used except in context of knightly orders. The lowest, non-titled level of hereditary nobility was “Aatelinen” (i.e. “noble”).
  7. Due to the principle of nobles’ equality, any aristocratic titles below that of prince were not allowed in Poland (with few exceptions). The titles in italics are simply Polish translations of western titles which were granted to some Polish nobles by foreign monarchs, especially after the partitions. Instead of heraditory titles, Polish nobility developed and used a set of titles based on one’s office. See szlachta for more info on Polish nobility.
  8. Portuguese titles in italic are not used in Portugal
  9. Latin titles are for etymological comparisons. They do not accurately reflect their medieval counterparts.
  10. Prince/principe can also be a title of the junior members of royal houses (Prinz in German, Prins in Swedish, Prinssi in Finish). In the British system, Prince is not a rank of nobility but a title held exclusively by members of the Royal Family.
  11. In the Central European system the title of Fürst, Kníže (e.g. Fürst von Liechtenstein) ranks below the title of a duke (e.g. Duke of Brunswick). The title of Vizegraf was not used in German-speaking countries. The titles of Ritter and Edler were not commonly used.
  12. No nobility titles were granted after 1906 when the unicameral legislatures (Eduskunta, Riksdag) were established, removing the constitutional status of the so-called First Estate, though noble ranks were granted in Finland until 1917. The lowest, non-titled level of hereditary nobility was “Aatelinen” (i.e. “noble”)– Aatelinen was basically a rank, not a title.
  13. For domestic Russian nobility only the two titles Kniaz and Boyar were used before the 18th century when Graf was added.
  14. In the German system by rank approximately equal to Landgraf and Pfalzgraf.
  15. The title Markýz was not used in Bohemia and thus refer only to foreign nobility, while the title Markrabe (the same as German Markgraf) is connected only to few historical territories – former marches on the borders of the Holy Roman Empire, e.g. Moravia.
  16. In Portugal, Barons and Viscounts belonging to the Grands of the Kingdom (Portuguese: Grandes do Reino), were called respectively Baron with Grandness (Portuguese: Barão com Grandeza) and Viscount with Grandness (Portuguese: Visconde com Grandeza) and were ranked equally with Counts.
  17. Not counted as nobility in the British system.
  18. Non-hereditary. Not counted as nobility in the British system. See also squire and esquire.

Royal and Noble Styles

Styles represent the fashion by which monarchs and noblemen are properly addressed. Throughout history, many different styles were used, with little standardization. This page will detail the various styles used by royalty and nobility in Europe, in the final form arrived at in the nineteenth century.

Imperial, royal, and princely styles:

Only those classified within the social class of royalty and upper nobility have a style of “Highness” attached before their title. Reigning bearers of forms of Highness included grand princes, grand dukes, sovereign princes, reigning dukes and princely counts, their families and the agnatic descendants of emperors and kings. Royals (usually emperors to princely counts) are all considered “princes” (German: Fürsten).

Emperors and Empresses enjoyed the style of His/Her Imperial Majesty (HIM).

Members of imperial families were generally styled His/Her Imperial Highness (HIH).
In Austria, the members of the Imperial family, due to their status as also members of the royal family of the Apostolic kingdom of Hungary, held the style of Imperial and Royal Highness (HI&RH), but actually traditionally the other way around: “königliche und kaiserliche Hoheit”[citation needed].
Also in the German Empire, the other ‘heir’ to the Holy Roman empire, the emperor and empress, would be addressed as Imperial and Royal Majesty because of their ruling over the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire.
In Russia, children and male-line grandchildren of the Emperor had the style of Imperial Highness (HIH). Male-line great-grandchildren held the style of Highness (HH). Also, the eldest son of any person who held the style of Highness also held the style of Highness. All other male-line descendants held the style Serenity [meaning “august,” “majestic,” “grand,” “noble,” “imposing,” “magnificent,” “exalted,” “supreme,” “royal,” “famous”], often translated as Serene Highness (HSH). Some Russian noble princes also hold the style of Serenity; all others and Russian princely counts hold the style of Illustriousness, often translated as Illustrious Highness (HIllH).

Kings and queens have the style of Majesty (HM). Some, throughout history have also used Royal Majesty (HRM)

Members of royal families (princes and princesses) generally have the style of Royal Highness (HRH), although in some royal families (for instance, Denmark), more junior princes and princesses only bear the style of His or Her Highness (HH).

Reigning grand dukes and grand duchesses hold the style of Royal Highness (HRH).
The styles of members of grand ducal families have been inconsistent. In Luxembourg, more senior members of the family have also been Royal Highnesses, but only due to their status as Bourbon princes of Parma (itself an inconsistency as Parma was only ducal, but this family has male-line descent from kings of Etruria, Spain and France). In Baden and Hesse and by Rhine, junior members held the style of Grand Ducal Highness (HGDH). Members of other grand ducal families generally held the style of Highness (HH).

Reigning dukes and duchesses bore the style of Highness (HH), as did other members of ducal families. Junior members of some ducal families bore the style of Ducal Serene Highness (HDSH), although it fell out of fashion.

The Elector of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) also bore the style of Highness, as did other members of the Hesse-Kassel family.

Mediatized dukes and reigning and mediatized princes (Fürsten) bear the style of Serene Highness (HSH, German: Durchlaucht [which originally meant majestic, grand, famous, imposing, magnificent and royal]), as do other members of princely families. Members of reigning princely families are also styled Serene Highness (HSH) [which is an exalted style—the style of a monarch].

Mediatized princely counts and countesses bear the style of Illustrious Highness (HIllH, German Erlaucht [which has a similar meaning to the stronger title of Durchlaucht).

Noble styles in the United Kingdom:

The monarch of the United Kingdom has a much longer style than that of other members of the British royal family and nobility. For example, the full style of Elizabeth II in the United Kingdom is, “Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.”
Dukes and duchesses in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland, and the United Kingdom as well as nobility bearing the title of “Prince” (who are not royalty of highness) bear the style of Grace, eg. “His Grace”, “Your Grace”. They also hold the style of Most High, Potent, and Noble Prince, but even in the most formal situations that is usually simply abbreviated to Most Noble, and even that style is quite archaic and very formal.
Marquesses and marchionesses bear the styles of The Most Honourable and Lordship (e.g. “His Lordship,” “Her Ladyship,” “Your Lordship,” and “Your Ladyship.”) They also hold the style of Most Noble and Puissant Prince, but even in the most formal situations this style is rarely used.
Earls, countesses, viscounts, viscountesses, barons, and baronesses bear the styles of The Right Honourable and Lordship.
Scottish feudal Barons bear the style The Much Honoured.

Noble styles in Germany:

The nobility and all related styles were abolished with the Weimar Constitution of 1919, but are used socially.
Non-mediatized noble dukes (German: Herzöge) in Germany bear the style of High Born (German: Hochgeboren).
Non-mediatized noble princes (German: Fürsten) in Germany bear the styles of Princely Grace (German: fürstliche Gnaden), or High Born.
Other non-mediatized German nobles of the rank of count or higher bear the style of High Born.
German nobles below the rank of count bear the style of High Well Born (German: Hochwohlgeboren). Another style is Well Born (German: Wohlgeborn) which ranks below High Well Born.

Sources and references:

Heraldica: (
RoyalArk, mainly for non-European monarchies (site temporarily down) (
Genealogists Discover Royal Roots for All (

How to Address Nobility and Royalty

Addressing Nobility or Royalty depends on the Style use by the particular personage and ones country. However, generally speaking, with a reigning or “de jure” King or Queen, you would use, “Your Majesty.” If a Royal, it would be, “Your Royal Highness.” If a Noble, there could be a number of different styles, such as, “Your Serene Highness,” “Your Excellency,” “Your Grace,” “Your Right Honorable,” or something else depending on the title and country involved. It would be best if you find out about what is appropriate ahead of time so as not to be awkward or clumsy.

After you have once recognized the prenominal title of the royal or noble, then you may simply call him or her, “Sir” or “Ma’am.”

Generally speaking, you are not to bow or curtsey unless the monarch is the sovereign of your own country.

See chart below taken from the article “Forms of Address in the United Kingdom”:


Position or title:On anenvelope:In a letter:Verbally or face to face:
KingHM The KingYour MajestyYour Majesty, and thereafter as “Sir/Sire”
QueenHM The QueenYour MajestyYour Majesty, and thereafter as “Ma’am”
Prince of WalesHRH The Prince of WalesYour Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness, and thereafter as “Sir”
Wife of the Prince of WalesHRH The Princessof WalesYour Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness, and thereafter as “Ma’am”
Princess RoyalHRH The Princess RoyalYour Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness, and thereafter as “Ma’am”
Royal PeerHRH The Duke of London eg. (HRHThe Duke of Kent)Your Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness, and thereafter as “Sir”
Royal PeeressHRH The Duchessof London eg. (HRHThe Duchess of Kent)Your Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness, and thereafter as “Ma’am”
Sovereign’s son(unless a peer)HRH The Prince John, eg. (HRH The Prince Edward)Your Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness, and thereafter as “Sir”
Sovereign’s son’s wife(unless a peeress)HRH The Princess JohnYour Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness, and thereafter as “Ma’am”
Sovereign’s daughter(unless a peeress)HRH The Princess Mary,eg. (HRH The Princess Anne)Your Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness, and thereafter as “Ma’am”
Sovereign’s son’s son,Prince of Wales’s eldest son’s eldest son(unless a peer)HRH Prince John of London, eg (Prince Michael of Kent)Your Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness, and thereafter as “Sir”
Sovereign’s son’s son’s wife(unless a peeress)HRH Princess John of London, eg (Princess Michaelof Kent)Your Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness, and thereafter as “Ma’am”
Sovereign’s son’s daughter(unless a peeress)HRH Princess Mary of London, eg (Princess Beatriceof York)Your Royal HighnessYour Royal Highness
Sovereign’s son’s son’s son(unless a peer)Lord John Windsor,eg (Lord Nicholas Windsor)Dear LordJohnLord John
Sovereign’s son’s son’s son’s wife(unless a peeress)Lady John Windsor,eg (Lady Nicholas Windsor)Dear LadyJohnLady John
Sovereign’s son’s son’s daughter(unless a peeress)The Lady Mary Windsor, eg (TheLady Helen Taylor)Dear LadyMaryLady Mary

Peers and peeresses

His Grace The Duke of LondonMy Lord Duke or Dear Duke(of London)Your Grace orDuke[citation needed]
DuchessHer Grace The Duchess of LondonMadam orDear Duchess (of London)Your Grace orDuchess[citation needed]
Marquess or MarquisThe Most Hon. The Marquess ofLondonMy Lord Marquess orDear Lord LondonMy Lord orYour Lordship orLord London
MarchionessThe Most Hon. The Marchioness of LondonMadam orDear Lady LondonMy Lady[citation neededorYour Ladyship orLady London
EarlThe Rt Hon. TheEarl of LondonMy Lord orDear Lord LondonMy Lord orYour Lordship orLord London
CountessThe Rt Hon. The Countess ofLondonMadam orDear Lady LondonMy Lady[citation needed]orYour Ladyship orLady London
ViscountThe Rt Hon. The Viscount LondonMy Lord orDear Lord LondonMy Lord orYour Lordship orLord London
ViscountessThe Rt Hon. The ViscountessLondonMadam orDear Lady LondonMy Lady[citation needed]orYour Ladyship orLady London
BaronLord of ParliamentThe Rt Hon. The Lord LondonMy Lord orDear Lord LondonMy Lord orYour Lordship orLord London
Baroness (in her own right)The Rt Hon. The Lady London orThe Rt Hon. The Baroness LondonMadam orDear Lady London orDear Baroness LondonMy Lady[citation needed]orYour Ladyship orLady London orBaroness London
Baroness (in her husband’s right)
Lady of Parliament (in her orher husband’s right)
The Rt Hon. The Lady LondonMadam orDear Lady LondonMy Lady[citation needed]orYour Ladyship orLady London

Eldest sons of dukes, marquesses and earls:
(Eldest sons of dukes, marquesses and earls use their fathers’ highest secondary titles as courtesy titles. Eldest daughters do not have courtesy titles; all courtesy peeresses are wives of courtesy peers.)
Courtesy: MarquessMarquess of LondonMy Lord Marquess orDear Lord LondonMy Lord orLord London
Courtesy: MarchionessMarchioness of LondonMadam orDear Lady LondonMy Lady orLady London
Courtesy: EarlEarl of LondonMy Lord orDear Lord LondonMy Lord orLord London
Courtesy: CountessCountess ofLondonMadam orDear Lady LondonMy Lady orLady London
Courtesy: ViscountViscount LondonMy Lord orDear Lord LondonMy Lord orLord London
Courtesy: ViscountessViscountessLondonMadam orDear Lady LondonMy Lady orLady London
Courtesy: BaronCourtesy: Lord of ParliamentLord LondonMy Lord orDear Lord LondonMy Lord orLord London
Courtesy: BaronessCourtesy: Lady of ParliamentLady LondonMadam orDear Lady LondonMy Lady orLady London

Heirs-apparent and heirs-presumptive of Scottish peers:
(Heirs-apparent and heirs-presumptive of Scottish peers use the titles “Master” and “Mistress”; these are substantive, not courtesy titles. If, however, the individual is the eldest son of a Duke, Marquess or Earl, then he uses the appropriate courtesy title, as noted above.)
Scottish peer’s heir-apparentor heir-presumptiveThe Master of EdinburghSir orDear Master of EdinburghSir orMaster
Scottish peer’s heiress-apparent or heiress-presumptiveThe Mistress of EdinburghMadam orDear Mistress of EdinburghMadam orMistress
Sons of peers:
Duke’s younger sonMarquess’s younger sonLord John SmithMy Lord orDear Lord John (Smith)My Lord orLord John
Duke’s younger son’s wifeMarquess’s younger son’swifeLady John SmithMadam orDear Lady JohnMy Lady orLady John
Earl’s younger sonViscount’s sonBaron’s sonLord of Parliament’s sonThe Hon. JohnSmithSir orDear Mr SmithSir orMr Smith
Earl’s younger son’s wifeViscount’s son’s wifeBaron’s son’s wifeLord of Parliament’s son’swifeThe Hon. Mrs John SmithMadam orDear Mrs SmithMadam orMrs Smith

Daughters of peers:
(If a peer’s daughter marries another peer or courtesy peer, she takes her husband’s rank. If she marries anyone else, she keeps her rank and title, using her husband’s surname instead of her maiden name.)

Duke’s daughterMarquess’s daughterEarl’s daughter(unmarried or married to a commoner)
The Lady Mary Smith (if unmarried), The Lady Mary Brown (Husband Surname, if Married)Madam orDear LadyMaryMy Lady orLady Mary

Viscount’s daughterBaron’s daughterLord of parliament’s daughter(unmarried)
The Hon. MarySmithMadam orDear MissSmithMadam orMiss Smith

Viscount’s daughterBaron’s daughterLord of parliament’s daughter(married to a commoner)
The Hon. MrsBrown (Husband Surname)Madam orDear MrsBrownMadam orMrs Brown

Scottish Barons (non-peerage Barons):

Scottish Baron
The Much Honoured John Smith of Edinburgh or The Much Honoured Baron of EdinburghSir or Dear EdinburghEdinburgh or Baron

Scottish Baroness
The MuchHonouredBaroness of EdinburghMadam or BaronessAs on envelope

Scottish Baron’s wife
Lady Edinburgh or MadamAs on envelopeAs on envelope

Baronet(The Hon.) Sir John Smith, Bt (or Bart.)Sir orDear Sir John (Smith)Sir orSir John
Baronetess in her own rightDame Mary Smith, BtssMadam orDear Dame Mary (Smith)Madam orDame Mary
Baronet’s wifeLady SmithMadam orDear Lady SmithMy Lady orLady Smith
Knight (of any order)Sir John SmithSir orDear Sir John (Smith)Sir orSir John
Lady (of the Order of theGarter or the Thistle)Lady Mary SmithMadam orDear LadyMary (Smith)My Lady orLady Mary
Dame (of an order otherthan the Garter or the Thistle)Dame Mary SmithMadam orDear Dame Mary (Smith)Madam orDame Mary
Knight’s wifeLady SmithMadam orDear Lady SmithMy Lady orLady Smith
Scottish chiefs and lairds:
ChiefJohn Smith of Smith or John Smith of Edinburgh orJohn Smith of thatIlk or The Smith of Smith or The Smith of Edinburgh orThe Smith (varies according to family)Sir or Dear Smith (if placename in title) or Dear Smith (otherwise)Edinburgh (if placename intitle) or Smith (otherwise)

Female Chief or lairdChief or Laird
As Chief/Laird,substituting “Mrs”or “Madam”for first name or“The”Madam oras onenvelopeMadam oras onenvelope
Chief (etc.)’s heir-apparentJohn Smith of Edinburgh, yr orJohn Smith, yr of Edinburgh orJohn Smith of Edinburgh or(last only if different first name to father)Sir orDear Mr Smith of EdinburghSir orMr Smith of Edinburgh
Chief (etc.)’s heir-apparent’swifeMrs Smith of Edinburgh, yr orMrs Smith, yr of EdinburghMadam orDear MrsSmith of EdinburghMadam orMrs Smithof Edinburgh
Chief (etc.)’s eldest daughter (if none senior)Miss Smith of EdinburghMadam orDear MissSmith of EdinburghMadam orMiss Smithof Edinburgh
Chief (etc.)’s younger daughterMiss Mary Smith of EdinburghMadam orDear MissSmith of EdinburghMadam orMiss Smithof Edinburgh
Church of England
Similar styles are also applied to clergy of equivalent status in other religious organisations.
ArchbishopThe Most Rev. andRt Hon. The Lord Archbishop of CanterburyDear ArchbishopYour Grace orArchbishop
Archbishop that is not in Privy CouncilThe Most Rev.John SmithDear ArchbishopYour Grace orArchbishop
Diocesan bishop in Privy CouncilThe Rt Rev. and Rt Hon. The Lord Bishop of LondonDear BishopMy Lord orBishop
Diocesan bishopThe Rt Rev. TheLord Bishop of LondonDear BishopMy Lord orBishop
BishopThe Rt Rev. The Bishop of Londonor The Rt Rev. The Lord Bishop of LondonDear BishopMy Lord orBishop
DeanThe Very Rev. The Dean of LondonDear Mr/Mrs/Ms DeanDean
ProvostThe Very Rev. The Provost of LondonDear ProvostProvost
ArchdeaconThe Ven. The Archdeacon of LondonDear ArchdeaconArchdeacon
PrebendaryThe Rev. Prebendary SmithDear Prebendary SmithPrebend
CanonThe Rev. Canon John SmithDear CanonCanon
Priest (a vicar or rector)The Rev. JohnSmith or FatherJohn SmithDear Mr/Mrs/Ms Smith orDear Father SmithMr/Mrs/Ms Smith or Father John Smith/John/Smith or Vicar/Rector /Curate/Chaplain etc. as applicable
DeaconThe Rev. Deacon John Smith orThe Rev. John Smith
Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms Smith orDear Deacon Smith
Deacon Smith or Mr/Mrs/Ms Smith

The usage ‘Lord’ as applied to a bishop pre-dates the United Kingdom, and is a well-established convention.
Church of Scotland:

Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly Clergy
His Grace The Lord High CommissionerYour GraceYour Grace
The Rev. JohnSmithDear Mr SmithMr Smith

For other styles of address, see: (